The word megalith has stemmed from the merger of two Greek terms of "mega" meaning large and "lithic" signifying stone.

Presently the megalithic tribes of India use various structures of stone as burials or memorials of the dead. However in the past megaliths were not only sepulchral/funerary structures but were also used both as memorials of the dead and to commemorate various events of the family and that of the community. Megaliths were found even to be used as boundary markers and also as astronomical structures.



Each passing day numerous ancient megaliths get destroyed in India and we have no record of this disaster. It is sad that no government agencies like the ASI, the State Archaeological Depts and the District Administrations demonstrate any interest in their protection perhaps for their tribal origin and also possibly because megaliths to them do not appear to be significant relics of our land.

In actuality prehistoric megaliths are a significant source of our ancient history and their preservation is imperative as these monuments are evidences that India was indeed a land of the tribals in hoary times. A few of them however suggests that astronomy and geometry was known to the megalithic tribals millennias prior to the emergence of the Brahmanical astronomer/mathematicians. Obliteration of prehistoric megaliths is bound to erase this verity.

To view a few photographs of megaliths of India visit:

The photographs and essays from this website may be used for research purposes giving credit to it.

Come let’s celebrate megaliths…




Wednesday, 11 April 2018


Lat: 24 deg. 12'9" N Long 84 54' 46" E

The new megalithic site is found a few kilometers East of the District town of Chatra in Jharkhand, East India on the road to Hazaribagh.

This is a burial site of the erstwhile tribes of which exactly is difficult to vouch with certainty. This site though is badly ruined yet has about 13 menhirs most of them are inclined. They may  have been planted inclined or may have become slanted by the passing time. 

The site

The author stands between a few menhirs

The site is similar to the other megalithic sites of Chatra as this site too consists of a tree which is a mahua (madhuca longifolia)  tree. Like in other megalithic sites of Chatra here too few menhirs though placed side by side open up in North-South directions as below:

Few menhirs here like in other megalithic sites of Chatra though are placed close to one another open up towards the North-South directions. Credit:Ujjal Ghosh

Few menhirs like other megalithic sites of Chatra lean on one another as in the photograph below:

The two menhirs in the above like other menhirs in the megalithic sites of Chatra lean on one another.

Most of the menhirs in this ancient megalithic site have been broken and pieces of pottery lie scattered all around confirming the mode of entombment to be that of pot/pitcher burial. However the raised mound on which the megalithc site stands needs to be excavated to confirm the type of burial the site comprises. All around the site are stones and hills which could be the quarry from which the stones were quarried. 

Vijay Singh shares the frame with the author and the megaliths

The raised mound where the burials are below the menhirs are clearly visible

The author stands amidst few tall menhirs

Vikram admires the old stones

Tuesday, 9 January 2018


My latest book published on the first week of January 2018


This book is precisely on a few archaeoastronomical megalithic sites of my home state of Jharkhand in East India. 

Megaliths in India are solely considered to be sepulchral or commemorative monuments. That a few are also associated with astronomy is not known and even not recognised by main stream archaeologists of the nation.

This book furnishes evidence how a set of megalithic proto-austroloid Kolarian Mundari tribes who still pursue megalithic burial practices built such megalithic complexes with precise astronomical alignments.

The book deals with 6 megalithic complexes of Furuka, Chano, Katia Murbey etc in both Hazaribagh and Chatra districts  which reveals positioning of the entire site and the stones within them with precise alignments to the notches and peaks of the encircling hills, towards significant sunrises and sets of solstices and equinoxes and even towards the cardinal points. The placements also reveal basic mathematics as ratios, hex-sectionings  et al. 
The book also deals with the general information on megaliths and even other purposes of these ancient monuments.

Thereafter the book sets an inquiry whether it were indeed the proto-austroloid Kolarian tribes who built these archaeoastronomical complexes. If so then why their present day megaliths are devoid of such sciences ? 
Could the makers of the temples be some unknown set of people?

The book questions what may have been the need of such astronomical megalithic temples and at the the same time attempts to provide a reasonable answer to this query.

Lavishly photographed and though written in a scholarly manner the book will induce interest even in the common people who would really want to know the left out unknown chapter of India's past.

The book is available in all the leading book stores of the country and even on-line. The book could also be bought from my publisher:
Tel: 01126816301, 26818960

Monday, 18 December 2017



Left: Cart ruts of Rajgir. Bihar. Right: Cart ruts of Mahabalipuram. Tamil Nadu

In many places of the world as Bolivia, Malta, Italy, France, Azerbaijan, Portugal and Belgium etc one sees mysterious long deep grooved tracks on stones.

The explanations vary from one person to the other as, the ruts may have been produced on the rocks by the wheels of carts or wagons while quarrying stones, or these could be ceremonial lines of the ancients, or these probably served as drains. Some even associate these ruts with aliens. It therefore seems that are as many interpretations as there are visitors to these enigmatic sites.  

But that India too may house these ruts was not known to many. Below I cite only two cart rut sites known to me. Surely there ought to be more but they have not yet been brought to light.


Rajgir is in the Bihar state of east India. Here there is a parallel furrow on stone that begins abruptly and runs a small distance towards a neighbouring hill. The ruts softly bend towards the right in a slope towards the hill. The depth of each rut vary, at some place it is quite deep and broad and at times it is slim and shallow. However the distance between the two ruts is largely uniform. 

The ASI board suggests that the ruts are indeed chariot marks occurred due to chariots that belong to the Mahabharata period (?).

Archaeological Survey of India has set up a display that states that these ruts are actually chariot wheel marks created during the Mahabharata period. However the local legend is that it was created by the chariot of Lord Krishna who rode his chariot in such a speed that it created the furrows in the stone (pity the horses).


Studying the cart ruts while Bubu looks inquisitively.

I tried figuring out the real reason that may have created the parallel tracks. I tried tracking the tracks and found that they headed towards an adjacent hill. Was this track therefore created to cart boulders from the neighbouring hill. The boulders were perhaps needed to build the cyclopean wall by Ajatshatru to protect his kingdom. The large boundary wall incidentally is pretty near to this rut site.

Was the pair of ruts built to quarry stones for this cyclopean wall to safeguard Ajatshatru's terittory ?

But this is only speculation as a large section of the world as stated above too hold these ruts of which no body has an appropriate explanation.

Prantik and I gaze at the inscription stone.
The conch shell script on the stone.

  Adjacent to the parallel furrow of ruts are a few outcrops on which are engraved a few Shell Inscriptions also known as the Shankh Lipi. This inscription having Brahmi characters and resembling conchs is not yet deciphered and is said to belong to the 5th/6th cent AD. No body therefore knows what these script on the stones adjacent to the ruts suggest.

The entire complex is today enclosed within a boundary of block of stones.


To the Southern part of India is a Hindu site of amazing temples sculpted out of rock boulders and the sculptures display stunning artistry of the skilled artisans of ancient India.

But there is something more here: the cart ruts.

Though a little different than that of Rajgir and of the rest of the world the tracks here run alone and even in a trio. These lines run all over the rocks. 

The tracks do not give an inkling that they are wheel tracks. What purpose did these serve, were they used for some sort of a drainage? Not possible as a few of these tracks can be seen ascending uphill. 

The quality of the incision of these ruts here are relatively better than that of Rajgir's. One three-track set seem to resemble the ones on the stones of the Bolivian woods.

The three parallel ruts of Mahabalipuram

This is a single rut

These tracks have an uncanny resemblance with the ones of Bolivian jungles

The three parallel ruts climbs up the stone in the foreground thereafter disappear in the earth in the middle and then continue to climb on the boulder at the background.

Despite the various interpretations by the multitude of people one cannot say conclusively the purpose of these ruts and why they are all over the world. 
These ruts certainly have kept and would keep firing the imaginations of people till one day an authentic explanation comes our way.

Till then let the interpretations live on...they are indeed fun to read.

Friday, 8 December 2017


Cupmarks on a natural rock near  the Raja Gosawin menhir. The presence of the cupules near the menhir might suggest that the menhir may have had been a major temple in hoary antiquity.          
   Cupules are a mystery. No one has so far come forth with a suitable elucidation of these tiny hemispherical depressions on stones. These small cavities have been named cupules by the famed archaeologist Roberet G. Bednarik. 
Cupules have been found in all the continents of the world excepting Antarctica. Cupmarks are therefore the oldest surviving rock arts known to human beings. 


         I also agree with Benarik that cupules must have been made for different purposes during different ages. Many associate these features with the symbols of the primeval Great Goddess. Megaliths were the appendages of the now defunct primitive fertility cult, the world over. The ‘yoni’ or vulva of the female was worshipped, as it was through this organ the child took birth. Pregnant wombs and pregnant women became revered entities under this primitive religion of fertility. 

         Therefore, across the world, a specific shape of a hill resembling a reclining female having a pregnant womb began to be worshipped as the Recumbent Mother Goddess form and the female vagina became the emblem of this Great Goddess and it still is in countries like India.Circles are also the symbols of the womb or the vulva of the Great Mother. 

Cupules in a megalithic complex of Napo. 
   In primitive countries like India, this primordial fertility cult can still be seen mingled with the much later evolved Brahmanical Hindu religion and its Sanskrit rituals. Therefore, circles are drawn in red or ochre on walls during marriages; circles in India are still the symbol of the womb of the Mother.

    It could be that such circular hemispherical engravings made on megaliths known today as cupmarks or cupules, were the symbols of the archaic Mother Goddess. Putting them on megaliths which too were female temples of the Great Goddess was perhaps in a way for the celebration of the glory of the Mother Goddess.

   I have observed two types of cupmarks made on megaliths. One which can be seen made arbitrarily on a specific stone and the other type is a set of two rowed eight in each cupules, rather sixteen cupules in total on a megalith. The second kind I have found to have been made in an east west orientation. Today village children make such cupmarks on stones to play a game with small pebbles in them. The game, I feel is a later alteration of this much primitive arrangement of cupmarks. But do the 16 cupules (two-rowed 8 in each) anything to do with the so-called 16-month megalithic calendar of Alexander Thom?

These two- rowed eight-in-each cupmarks (making a total of 16 cupules) were made in an East-West orientation in most of the horizontal stones, as this recumbent menhir  in Chano. 

   I have found cupmarks on vertical stones in the rock arts India but on megaliths I have always seen them made on horizontal stones and on inclined stone(as in the pic of Napo above) unlike them being found even on vertical stones, abroad (I would however like information on cupmarks on verticals stones in India, if you know of cupulues on vertical megaliths as menhirs or even on dolmens, do inform with a photograph, if possible). The diameters of these depressions range from three cms to a whopping eight inches.


I had the fortune to discover this amazing cupule site about two decades ago. This site comprising of about 350/400 cupules is undoubtedly the largest cupules site of Jharkhand Just adjacent to the Jaganaath Pahari in  Silwar village about 6 kms east of Hazaribagh in Jharkhand is a tall menhir which the villagers revere as the Raja Gosaiwn. At its Northern and western ends surrounding are outcrops which are profusely ornamented with cupules. 

There are hundreds of them in here.The village women also pour milk in them on Saturdays and Tuesdays, the days assigned to the Mother Goddess.For them the cupules are the Goddesses' vulva hence are objects of veneration.

The cupules at the bottom surface of the Bodhayana Shila in the Jaganaath Pahari
     In the Jaganaath pahari itself there is a polyhedron structure whose bottom surface has about 8 to 10 large sized cupules which does not touch the platform on which the stone rests. These were perhaps sculpted before placing the enormous sized stone upon the platform to work as 'grippers' so that the polyhedron structure does not skid to its front while placing.

   One of the oldest dating of cupmarks has  perhaps come from Australia’s Jinmium province where cupules are found to be about 58,000 to 75,000 years old as dated by Australian scientists according to an article published on " The Sydney Morning Herald News Review of Sep 21, 19996". According to Bednarik  cupmarks appear in India in the Pleistocene, but most are from the Holocene, and they were made from Acheulian to the historic period.

This is a ritualistic implement in a Hindu household even used in weddings. Is this an evolved form of the primitive cupules ?

For more information on cupules on megaliths of Hazaribagh, visit:

rajeev said...

good infrmation. I was looking for it.

Anonymous said...

This is really interesting. Megaliths are mystery.

Megaliths of India said...

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Lat: 23 deg 10' North
Long: 85 deg 56' East

Chokahatu. In the austric Mundaric language (one of the most abundantly spoken languages in primitive India and currently  is the speech of hundreds and thousands of tribals in the east and the central of contemporary India) it means 'the land of mourning'.
Chokahatu, situated about 80 kms south-east of the capital city of Ranchi is primarily a megalithic burial ground of the Mundas. Such burial grounds are known as sasandiri, harsali, haragarhi etc in the local Mundaric languages and can be found in almost all the tribal villages in and around Ranchi.

The sepulchral slabs

The burial slabs. The capstone in the foreground has a porthole

But Chokahatu is different. 
It is enormous in size. It is so huge that you can get lost amidst the sea of stones.

Chokahatu has only two menhirs and the rest are all burial slabs and dolmens. The dolmens are also known as sasandiri to the Oraons, Hos, Mundas and the Asurs.The site was discovered by one T.F.Pepe way back in the late 19th century (Mr.Pepe like Mr.Babington has the rarest disticntion of discovering numerous megaliths in India in the 19th century). Pepe reported the site to Col.Dalton who visited here in 1871.

Dalton was bewildered at the enormity of the site.He wrote in the "Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal" Vol.42 in 1872 that his helpers counted the sepulchral slabs to be around 8000 and the area was more than a whopping 7 acres. He believed that there must be an understratum of these graves and this site must be about two thousand years old. The villagers however disagreed with me , they affirmed the site is of about 14 acres and must be more than two thousand year of age.
Well that's for the archaeologists to decide, if  they ever arrive here.

Self-portrait alongside a sasandiri dolmen with a large capstone.

People since very olden times must have been bringing the bones of the deceased for a burial in this sacred land from all over the country, the villagers told me. Even today people come from far off places for burial in this holy land. They build dolmens on the dead of their relatives,carting the slabs on vehicles. 

...another sasandiri dolmen

What makes Chokahatu more significant to the scholars and the common man is its continued use since its inception. 

A few moderns day commemorative sasandiri dolmens.

Chokahatu is one of the oldest historical remains of our country and it still being used in an uninterrupted manner since hoary antiquity is also an illustration of its living heritage status. It therefore demands a World Heritage position. 

Chokahatu, such a significant site, lingers in utter negligence like any other megalithic site in India, but then megaliths being tribal heritages are not worthy of respect, here.

I must admit yours is a fantastic website.One learns so much from it.

I am just surprised to learn about Chokahatu. Why cannot Jharkhand capitalise on such sites for international tourism?
As an interested but total amateur, your pictures as well as the appended information has left me gasping. I am amazed at the indifference of our ASI to what could well be a facet of our heritage that we must be virtually ignorant of. My cousin has just completed her M.A in archaeology from C.U. I have advised her to immediately visit my FB home page and look up your posts. Subhashis, it strikes me that given the slumber of our very own ASI, why should you not take up the matter with the U.N? That our country did at all have any pre-aryan culture is mind boggling. Mind you, this is NOT my view at all! If most of these are burial grounds though, some still in use, it appears that there may be a problem with archaeological "digs," perhaps. CARRY ON THE GOOD WORK, MATE! Our tribals, so long exploited, so long deprived deserve their moment in the sun!
Your reaction is very inspiring. You speak of the indifference of ASI, just go through another post which I had put in last night,read through it and tears are bound to stand on your eyes. Visit my site : and click on the tab "ROLA MEGALITHS AT THE VERGE OF DESTRUCTION". and then react.

Good you have advised your cousin to visit my blog. In fact megaliths in Indian archaeology are not that much venerated perhaps for their aboriginal origin. Neither do they nurture much regard for tribals. Indian Histroy for them is only Hinduism/Brahamnism/Aryanism and Islam . For them tribals had nothing to contribute to our country.

Strangely when i have archaeologists archaeoastronomners, scholars or even simple tourists from UK, France, Russia, Germany visiting my discovered megalithic sites in Jharkhand or elsewhere , I find stark difference between them and us. Their understanding of India is far profound.

When I had visited Chokahatu firstly in 2003/2004, none of the archaeological depts could provide me with any info.In the village I was told I was the only Indian in many years to have visited the site; the site was usually visited by anthropologists from UK and France and Germany.

I am trying to get a World heritage Status for Chokahatu for being not only one of the the largest burial sites but for the practice of the continued living tradition of megalithism since over 2000 years.

Thank you Kalyan for your inspiring words. Take your time and go through my site. Let me brag a bit : Kalyan this is the only blog on megaliths in India.
Among the many things these tell us, they also tell us, our tribals if anything, were not dumb as some make it sound.
They related to nature well. Tried to understand nature and live with nature.
Astronomy and these megaliths are just, one part of this knowledge.

These enhance our respect for the simple native people of this world.
hari dk
first of all i must congrats you for your amazing field work in the contest of Megalithic culture of India.
me too interested in Megalithic culture and doing my PhD on the same subject. currently i am working at Dept of Archaeology Maharashtra and planing to excavate some of the Megalithic burial located in Vidarbha region.
i want to visit the sites you discovered.
have u discovered any megalithic burial site in southern MP or Chhatisgarh area?
i would like to tell you that plese search habitation of these ancient people............

Virag Ji,

Thank you for liking my work and I presume you have also looked into other post of my website.

I am very happy to learn that you are working on the burials of Vidharbha. I have some news of a few discovered megaliths of Vidharbha in the " megalithic activities section" of my site. Does that figure your site as well?
You can visit my sites, but please inform me in advance so that I could arrange myself accordingly.

So far as megaliths of Chattisgarh is concerned please visit :


Subhashis das

So far as
Subhashis I have posted a page about Chokahatu along with your petition. Many thanks for allowing us to use some photos

Kind Regards,
you are doing phenomenal job.its realy appriciable.since i belong to munda tribe as far as i know my father once told me that all the surname of munda like hurad(kachchap),sandil,nag,etc..are the original surnames.hindus(aryans)have taken this from ours.since aryans invade india they were like landless or can say they enter our land and adopt tribal cultures and traditions and populated here.because of this adaptation many festivals and cultures of hindus are similar to tribal's cultures and festivals.for eg:chat puja,baisakhi,pongal,etc etc..aryans not only inhabited tribal lands but also adopted the religion and made their own religion called "HINDU" and also named India as hindustan.
Another interesting fact about jharkhand tribe is,the people are here the real followers or can say the heir of lord Ram and lord Shiva cause their living style and weapons are similar to these lords....:)
Good information. Jeyakumar ramasami


Megaliths of Mizoram:

Blog on Brahmagiri megaliths:

First ever song composed on a megalith in India. Rajat Chandra sings on the fascinating megaliths of Punkri Birwadih:

Megalithic burials of the dolmen kind of Andhra Pradesh:

Rare megalithic sites discovered in Chattisgarh:

More than 200 megalithic sites found in Dhamtari and Mahasamund districts of Chattisgarh. Visit: